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Under Putin's leadership, Russia has scored poorly in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index and experienced democratic backsliding according to both the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index and Freedom House's Freedom in the World index. Putin has enjoyed high domestic approval ratings during his career, and received extensive international attention as one of the world's most powerful leaders. the youngest of three children of Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin (1911–1999) and Maria Ivanovna Putina (née Shelomova; 1911–1998).His birth was preceded by the death of two brothers, Viktor and Albert, born in the mid-1930s.The 2008 presidential election was won by Dmitry Medvedev, who appointed Putin Prime Minister, what some opponents considered the beginning of a period of "tandemocracy".Falling oil prices coupled with international sanctions imposed at the beginning of 2014 after Russia's annexation of Crimea and military intervention in Eastern Ukraine led to GDP shrinking by 3.7% in 2015, though the Russian economy rebounded in 2016 with 0.3% GDP growth and is officially out of the recession. intelligence agencies have accused him of launching an influence campaign against Hillary Clinton in the 2016 United States presidential election.On 30 August 2000, a criminal investigation (number 18/238278-95) was dropped in which Putin himself was one of suspects as a member of the Saint Petersburg city government.On 30 December 2000 yet another case against the prosecutor general was dropped "for lack of evidence", in spite of thousands of documents passed by Swiss prosecution.

On his appointment, few expected Putin, virtually unknown to the general public, to last any longer than his predecessors.

On 26 March 1997, President Boris Yeltsin appointed Putin deputy chief of Presidential Staff, which he remained until May 1998, and chief of the Main Control Directorate of the Presidential Property Management Department (until June 1998).

His predecessor on this position was Alexei Kudrin and the successor was Nikolai Patrushev, both future prominent politicians and Putin's associates.

During Vladimir Putin's first presidency, the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, and GDP measured in purchasing power increased by 72%.

Because of constitutionally mandated term limits, Putin was ineligible to run for a third consecutive presidential term in 2008.

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