Porn chat 2015

The repression of Saudi Arabia’s online sphere showed no signs of letting up with the accession of King Salman bin Abdulaziz al-Saud to the throne in January 2015.[1] The Saudi government continues to promote the internet use as a tool for economic development and e-government services, where it is ahead of many countries in the region.[2] Mobile broadband penetration increased, Saudis remain the some of the most active users of social media in the world, and new tools for encrypting web traffic and circumventing state censorship have provided Saudi internet users with opportunities to access a greater array of information and to express themselves on certain topics.

Following Salman’s appointment, the Twitter account @King Salman[3] received some 2 million new followers in six months.[4] While the internet remains the least repressive space for expression in the country, it is by no means free, as evidenced by the numerous violations of users’ rights that took place over the past year.

Standard mobile phone subscriptions have risen to 53 million, resulting in a penetration rate of 171.4 percent.[9] Finally, 87 percent of mobile subscriptions are prepaid.

The number of mobile subscriptions has dropped from a height of 56 million in 2011 as the government deported thousands of illegal workers and deactivated prepaid mobile accounts whose owners are not in the country legally.[10] Saudi Arabia is connected to the internet through two country-level data services providers, the Integrated Telecom Company and Bayanat al-Oula for Network Services, up from a single gateway in years past.

Nonetheless, high levels of social media use have driven an immense diversification of online content, offering Saudis a multitude of perspectives beyond state-controlled media.

These tools have also been used by ordinary citizens and human rights activists to raise awareness of issues surrounding political reform, poverty, gender inequality, and corruption.

Established in 1998 and reporting directly to the Vice President for Scientific Research Support of KACST, the ISU now only provides internet access to government departments, as well as Saudi research and academic institutions.[17] In 2003, the governmental Saudi Communication Commission was renamed to become the Communications and Information Technology Commission (CITC) and became responsible for providing internet access to the private sector, in addition to resolving conflicts among the private telecommunication companies.[18] The CITC is also responsible for controlling the price that telecommunications companies are allowed to charge for cross-network calls.

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Many other prisoners of conscience have been held for years without trial, according to a recent law that removed restrictions on arbitrary detention.The repression has been institutionalized under antiterrorism and cybercrimes that have instilled fear into activists and ordinary social media users alike, creating an environment of pervasive self-censorship.[5] Surveillance, too, has a chilling effect; social media is heavily monitored and law enforcement agencies have sought to break or bypass encryption in order to spy on users.While the internet has fundamentally changed the way that young Saudis interact with each other, the authoritarian tendencies of the country’s political and religious establishments remain fully present in the minds of internet users, whose democratic aspirations remain blocked.Saudis have enjoyed a rapid growth of internet and communications technologies (ICTs) in recent years.Access increased to 63.7 percent of the population by the end of 2014, up from 38 percent in 2009.[6] Saudi Arabia is home to around 19.6 million internet users.