Founded in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War, the republic lasted for 14 years. In total area, it is larger than El Salvador and smaller than Haiti. The west bank of the Connecticut River marks the state's eastern border with New Hampshire, though much of the river is within New Hampshire's territory.
Aside from the original 13 states that were formerly colonies, Vermont is one of only four U. states that were previously sovereign states (along with California, Hawaii, and Texas). Lake Champlain, the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United States, separates Vermont from New York in the northwest portion of the state.
The annual snowfall averages between 60 and 100 inches (1,500 and 2,500 mm) depending on elevation.
Vermont is the seventh coldest state in the country.
The highest recorded temperature was 105 °F (41 °C), at Vernon, on July 4, 1911; the lowest recorded temperature was −50 °F (−46 °C), at Bloomfield, on December 30, 1933; this is the lowest temperature recorded in New England (Big Black River, Maine, also recorded a verified −50 °F (−46 °C) in 2009).
The USDA Plant hardiness zones for the state range between zone 3b (no colder than −35 °F (−37 °C)) in the Northeast Kingdom and northern part of the state and zone 5b (no colder than −15 °F (−26 °C)) in the southern part of the state.
For thousands of years indigenous peoples, including the Mohawk and the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki, occupied much of the territory that is now Vermont and was later claimed by France's colony of New France.Settlers who held land titles granted by New York were opposed by the Green Mountain Boys militia, which supported the many settlers whose claims were based on grants from New Hampshire.Ultimately, those settlers prevailed in creating an independent state, the Vermont Republic. While still an independent republic, Vermont was the first of any future U. state to partially abolish slavery.), making it the 43rd-largest in land area and the 47th in water area.Vermont has a humid continental climate, with muddy springs, in general a mild early summer, hot Augusts; it has colorful autumns: Vermont's hills reveal red, orange, and (on sugar maples) gold foliage as cold weather approaches.The rural northeastern section known as the "Northeast Kingdom" often averages 10 °F (5.6 °C) colder than the southern areas of the state during winter.